The map above shows an estimate of the average number of deaths per 1,000 square kilometers per year due to air pollution. Researchers used the difference in pollution levels between 1850 and 2000 as a measure of human-caused air pollution: dark brown areas have more premature deaths than light brown areas, and blue areas have experienced an improvement in air quality relative to 1850 and a decline in premature deaths. Fine particulate matter takes an especially large toll in eastern China, northern India, and Europe—all areas where urbanization has added considerable quantities of PM2.5 to the atmosphere since the start of the Industrial Revolution. The map is once again accessible on the website of NASA’s Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=82087&eocn=home&eoci=iotd_title), following a decision by the U.S. congress to end the 17-day government shutdown (see page 3)
IAUC Newsletter No 47 now available in the sidebar.
The ancient theater at Petra, with afternoon shade. According to researchers from Tel Aviv University and MIT, this is a typical application of climate-based urban design rules formulated by Vitruvius over 2,000 years ago. (pp.19-23)